Existing Members

Check your test status, download results and order upgrades directly from your account.

Forgot your password?
Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone SNP Test
Store » Paternal Ancestry Tests » Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone SNP Test
Existing Member Login

Login first before placing your order.

Forgot your password?
Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone SNP Test
Price: 89.00 USD
Order Now

Purpose of test:  To confirm an individual’s predicted Y-DNA Haplogroup (deep ancestry on paternal line) by testing Y-DNA Haplogroup specific SNP markers in the Y-DNA.

Availability:  This test is open to males only.  Females do not have Y-DNA so females wishing to trace their paternal ancestry must test a male family member such as a brother or father.  Females can trace their maternal ancestry by ordering the mtDNA test

Technology Used:  Y-DNA SNP Panel

Prerequisites:  Must be ordered in conjunction with or subsequent to the Standard Paternal Ancestry Package.  Your Y-DNA Haplogroup is predicted with your Y-DNA STR Marker Test and confirmed with the Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone SNP Test.

1.  About Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone SNP Testing

What is Y-DNA Haplogroup Testing?

Your Y-DNA contains two types of ancestral markers, STRs, and SNPs.  While STR markers are highly informative for tracing recent ancestral events (family searches using DNA Reunion, matching against indigenous populations using Indigenous DNA), SNP markers in your Y-DNA carry information about your Y-DNA Haplogroup.

Haplogroups relate to our deep ancestry and provide us with a look at our ancient ancestral roots from tens of thousands of generations ago and shows how all people living today are connected to an ancient ancestor who lived in Africa over 100,000 years ago.

While our mtDNA allows us to trace our maternal ancestry, our Y-DNA, which is passed down from father to son, shows that all people living today shared a common male ancestor who lived in Africa over 100,000 years ago.  He is often termed the "Y-Chromosomal Adam".

The type of genetic markers used to build the human phylogenetic tree are called SNPs (single mucleotide polymorphisms).  SNPs are small "mistakes" that occur naturally in your DNA.  SNP mutations are rare, occuring at a rate of approximately one mutation every few hundred generations.  However, once a mutation occurs, it acts as a "time-and-date-stamp", because it is passed on to all future generations.  Each mutation event can be linked to a time and place in history, and by testing the mutations in your Y-DNA, you can determine which Y-DNA Haplogroup (ancient family group) you belong to.  SNP markers are found in both the mtDNA and the Y-DNA and allow us to trace our maternal and paternal ancestry respectively.

The Y-DNA tree has approximately 18 main branches "Y-DNA Haplogroups", classified by the letters A to R.  Each Y-DNA Haplogroup has many further sub-branches (subclades) classified by numbers and letters, ie R1a, R1b1, R1b2, etc.

The diagram below is a phylogenetic tree illustrating how all people living today share a common paternal ancestor, the "Y-Chromosomal Adam".  Click here to download a detailed copy of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Map.

By testing the SNP markers in your Y-DNA, you will be able to tell which branch of the Y-DNA Haplogroup tree you belong to.

Of course, each main branch has further sub-branches or "Subclades".  Once you know which Y-DNA Haplogroup you belong to, you can then focus on your Subclade through "Subclade testing".

About the Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone SNP Test Panel

The Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone SNP Test is a special panel of SNP markers in the Y-DNA which are specific for Y-DNA Haplogroup determination.  These SNP markers are the defining markers for an individual's Y-DNA Haplogroup.  Click on this link to view the SNP markers which are included in the Y-DNA Backbone SNP Test Panel (the Backbone SNP markers are shown in blue text) and view the Y-DNA Haplogroups that they define.

2.  Determining your Y-DNA Haplogroup

To follow is a basic step-by-step guide on how the SNP mutations in your Y-DNA are used to determine your Y-DNA Haplogroup:

Step #1:  Download and print the Y-DNA Haplogroup Reference Guide

Click here to print and download a copy of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone Reference Guide.  This guide is a valuable reference tool for you.

Step #2:  Gather your mutations

Determine which Y-DNA tests you have taken and which ones you did not take yet.

  • The SNP Haplogroup Backbone Test will show you all relevant mutations in the Y-DNA that are specific for Y-DNA Haplogroup determination (shown in black).


Step #3:  Identify your mutations on the Reference Map

Your Y-DNA Results Report will always include a mutation table.  Examine your mutations table and circle your mutations on the Reference Map.

  • Starting from the Y-Chromsomal Adam, circle the mutations that you have. 
  • Follow the path of your mutations away from Y-Chromosomal Adam. 
  • Ignore the markers that you did not test.
  • The final destination of the path mutations is the Y-DNA Haplogroup that you belong to.