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Y-DNA Q Subclade SNP Test
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Y-DNA Q Subclade SNP Test
Price: 89.00 USD
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Purpose of test: To provide individuals who are confirmed members of Y-DNA Haplogroup Q with further resolution through Q Subclade analysis.

Availability:  Open to males who are confirmed members of Y-DNA Haplogroup Q.

Technology Used:
  Y-DNA SNP Panel.  This test examines SNP markers which define the subclades (sub-branches) of Y-DNA Haplogroup Q.

Prerequisites:  Your membership in Haplogroup Q must be confirmed before you can proceed with Q Subclade Testing.  Confirmation of membership in Y-DNA Haplogroup Q can be from a "strong" prediction strength for Haplogroup Q based on the results of the STR markers tested in the Standard Paternal Ancestry Package or a conclusive confirmation of membership in Y-DNA Halogroup Q based on the results of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Backbone SNP Test.

What is subclade testing?

Subclade testing can provide increased resolution of your placement on the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree.  Before your subclade can be determined, you must first know what haplogroup you fall into.  Haplogroups are defined by a unique mutation event such as a single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP.  These SNPs mark the branch of a haplogroup, and indicate that all descendents of that haplogroup at one time shared a common ancestor.  The Y-DNA SNP mutation has been passed from father to son over thousands of years.  Over time, additional SNPs may occur within a haplogroup, leading to a new lineage.  These new lineages are considered subclades of the haplogroup.  Each time a new mutation occurs, there is a new branch in the haplogroup, and therefore a new subclade.  By testing for the presence of SNPs that have been identified as being indicative of a subclade within a haplogroup, you can now determine which specific subclade you belong to within your previously determined haplogroup.

What are the subclades of Haplogroup Q?

Current data indicate that there are distinct lineages, or subclades, within Haplogroup Q that can be detected with a panel of different SNPs. 

Description of the Panel

The Y-DNA Haplogroup Q Subclade Test consists of a panel of SNP markers used to define different subclades in Haplogroup Q.  The location of the SNPs and the subclades that they define can be viewed by clicking this link (subclade SNPs are shown in green text).

Description of the Subclades

Since many of the SNP markers that define the subclades within Haplogroup Q have only recently been detected, there have been few studies that have incorporated them into the genealogical analyses.  In addition, Subclade Q1a3a has been the focus of most studies since it is detected at such high rates within the Americas.  Consequently, relatively little is known about some of the individual subclades.  However, this means that any new information gathered about the subclades will be important for advancing our understanding of the history of human populations.  The table below summarizes some of the current knowledge about Haplogroup Q subclades.





- Distributed throughout the Middle East and Asia, including Chinese, Korean, Dungan, and Hazara populations

Sengupta et al. 2006, Spencer-Wells et al. 2001, Underhill et al. 2000

- The Indian haplotype for Q1a1 seems different from the Asian haplotype

Sharma et al. 2007, Spencer-Wells et al. 2001, Sengupta et al. 2006


- Detected in the Middle East and Siberia

Cinnoglu et al. 2004, Regueiro et al. 2006, Zalloua et al. 2008


- Only detected in India and Pakistan

Sharma et al. 2007,         Sengupta et al. 2006

- Widely distributed in India but at low frequencies

Sharma et al. 2007,         Sengupta et al. 2006

- Does not show social structure and is found in Indo-European and Dravidian castes and tribes

Sharma et al. 2007,         Sengupta et al. 2006


- SNP mutation M3 that defines this subclade likely arose between 10,000 and 15,000 years before present

Schurr and Sherry 2004, for example

- M3 arose in the ancestor of Native Americans and therefore provides information on the migration history of this continent

Schurr & Sherry,              Underhill et al. 1996

- Human remains of a 10,300 year old male discovered in Alaska was part of this subclade

Kemp et al. 2007

- Very common in the Americas at rates up to 100% in some populations

Bortolini et al. 2003, Karafet et al. 1999, Schurr 2004, Bianchi et al. 1998,  Underhill et al. 1996

- Presence in the Polynesian Islands, including Easter Island, indicates migration of Native Americans to this region

Hurles et al. 2002,               Ghiani et al. 2006


- This subclade seems to be specific to South America

Ruiz-Lenares et al. 1999

- The defining mutation, M19, is thought to have arisen 5,000 to 10,000 years ago

Ruiz-Lenares et al. 1999


- Present in populations of Yemeni Jews

Shen et al. 2004

- Detected in Israel in Hazara and Sindhi populations

Sengupta et al. 2006